Citizenship-by-investment refers to the process whereby qualified and carefully vetted candidates are granted full citizenship in exchange for their significant economic contribution to the passport-issuing state. Residence-by-investment refers to a similar process, but candidates in this case are granted temporary residence, which can be extended to permanent residence or, in some cases, citizenship at a later stage.
For individuals, the key benefits of holding an alternative passport include expanded travel mobility, access to business and educational opportunities on a global scale, ease of asset diversification, and improved safety and security in a rapidly changing world.
For host countries, the foreign direct investment secured through these programs creates both sovereign and societal value. Debt-free liquidity is injected into the economy, resulting in additional capital flows both to the public sector — encouraging fiscal autonomy, diversifying the economy, and creating employment opportunities — and the private sector, in the form of investments in existing enterprises, infrastructure, start-ups, and real estate.
Over 100 countries have investment migration legislation in place, and there are over 60 active programs globally, of which about 30 are relevant and successful. Nineteen of the G20 nations offer some form of mechanism to encourage inward investment in exchange for residence rights. The 20th member is the EU, and 60% of EU member states offer investment migration options.